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Genetics For Dummies by BrindleTail Genetics For Dummies by BrindleTail


DISCLAIMER: If there is incorrect information, please comment to let me know so I can fix it. However, if there is missing information, it is most likely intentional as this is meant to be very very basic. If you are that invested in equine genetics, there are many other helpful guides and explanations on DA, as well as the internet as a whole. This is meant for those who are confused and/or need a quick reference for what genes create what colors.




About the Agouti Gene In Bays:
Agouti controls the restriction of true black pigment (eumelanin) in the coat. Horses with the normal agouti gene have the genotype A/A or A/a. Horses without a normal agouti gene have the genotype a/a, and if they are capable of producing black pigment, it is uniformly distributed throughout the coat. If they do not possess the dominant E gene, there is no black pigment in the horse to restrict, and therefore no black points will be seen in chestnut-based horses.
  • a, the least dominant, must be homozygous to be observed and is responsible for unrestricted black coat (non-agouti black),

  • At, only visible in the homozygous form or when paired with a, is responsible for the black-and-tan seal brown coat,

  • A, visible when homozygous or when paired with a or At, is responsible for the standard bay coat,

  • A+, dominant, is responsible for the wildtype wild bay coat


A+ is not mentioned above, but “Wild Bay” As it is called, is simply bay but restricts the black points on the legs to only reach the ankles. It is often paired with pangare, but is NOT responsible for any lightening of the coat. That is all Pangare.


Breeding basics:

If a horse is Homozygous, it means that it has two dominant alleles. EE is homozygous black. ChCh is homozygous champagne. CrCr is homozygous cream. Homozygous means that one copy will always pass to the horse’s offspring.

Example: ee aa CrCr = Cremello X ee aa = Chestnut
= ALWAYS has palomino foals: ee aa nCr

Example: Ee Aa ChCh = Amber champagne X Ee aa ChCh = Classic Champagne
= ALWAYS have ChCh foals. Possibly Amber Champange, Classic Champagne, or Gold Champagne.

This is because if you are choosing your foal’s genetics, you get to choose one of the two alleles for each gene. Ee you can choose E or e. For Aa you can choose A or a. But for homozygous genes you will have the same when you have ChCh.



Unfortunately there is much more information to be explained, such as wild bay, gene mutations like brindle and chimera, but again, this is meant to be as basic as possible. If you do have questions on genetics or help with possible foal colors, feel free to comment and ask here.
Add a Comment:
 
:iconskypeoplephoenix732:
Skypeoplephoenix732 Featured By Owner Apr 1, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
ZebraW0lf referred me to this to learn more about equine genetics, and it's been very helpful :) I favorited this so I can come back when looking at open horse breeding and making entirely new horses :)
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:iconzebraw0lf:
ZebraW0lf Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
What is the genotype of classic cream, I'm confused.
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:iconsuccubuslust:
SuccubusLust Featured By Owner Dec 15, 2014
Enlighten me since im new to this, what would these town be classed as as?

sta.sh/211rt56euuk9?edit=1
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:iconkayosa:
Kayosa Featured By Owner Oct 1, 2014   Digital Artist
NOOOOO! 
Dun doesn't Darken the points it Lightens the base.  That's why its a dilution gene, and that's also why Bay Dun is often mistaken for Buckskin, because they look the same except with stripes.
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:iconhonestatis-stables:
Honestatis-Stables Featured By Owner Jun 12, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thank you for all your help! 
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:iconninuturu:
Ninuturu Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
if i breed my Black splash (Blue Eyes) EE aa nSpl with my Chestnut, Flaxen carrier ee aa nf what kind of foals would i get? and how much change would i have to get something with black?
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
All your foals would be black because of the EE so because you're mare is ee aa all foals would be Ee aa. Some might have nf and some might have splash, and some might have both. Hope that helped!!
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:iconninuturu:
Ninuturu Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Yes it did! Thank you :D
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:iconteamush:
teamush Featured By Owner Apr 10, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Very helpful!
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:iconpeccantis:
Peccantis Featured By Owner Feb 25, 2014   General Artist
Just a tiny nitpick. At cannot show up on bay base because bay (A and A+) is dominant over it. Any horse with A_ or A+_ will be bay and cannot be seal brown.
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Feb 25, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
There is further explanation in the artist’s comments section on the agouti gene, stating At may only be seen phenotypically if homozygous or paired with ‘a’. “Bay Based” on the sheet refers to the center column, meaning a horse that is neither black nor chestnut. Seal brown is also called seal bay and therefore I have put it within that column. 
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:iconpeccantis:
Peccantis Featured By Owner Feb 25, 2014   General Artist
Alright.
Reply
:iconlumenwolf:
LumenWolf Featured By Owner Feb 9, 2014  Hobbyist
This is very helpful!
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:iconemmavz:
EmmaVZ Featured By Owner Dec 8, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Dont know if this isw already said, but chestnuts dont always have ee/aa. They can have ee/Aa of ee/AA too :)
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:iconkela-art:
kela-art Featured By Owner Edited Dec 27, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
that's why it says ee/_ _ ;3
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:iconemmavz:
EmmaVZ Featured By Owner Dec 27, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
At the top it said ee/aa :) It can confuse people so that's why i said it ^^ 
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:iconkela-art:
kela-art Featured By Owner Dec 27, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
that makes sense :D (Big Grin)  
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:icongreenoakstables:
GreenOakStables Featured By Owner Dec 8, 2013  Hobbyist
Great!! =D
Reply
:iconobsidianfarm:
ObsidianFarm Featured By Owner Dec 7, 2013
Very clear for the basics of equine genetics...good job! Couldn't have explained it better myself xD
Reply
:iconpokadotponies:
PokaDotPonies Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
So would an ee ch be a gold?

Man I suck at anything like this... Really never understood Genetics!
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
It would!! Gold Champagne is ee __ (doesnt matter what the agouti is, but you could say aa to keep it simple) nCh or ChCh

if one nCh your horse could throw babies that are not champagne

if ChCh your horse will always throw champagne babies

ee aa nCh
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:iconpokadotponies:
PokaDotPonies Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
ohhh I think I get it now!
So an Ee Aa CrCr would be a dominant perlino and pass the gene to the offspring?
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Just perlino! Or double cream. Nordanner has ruined the word dominant xD

But yes!! All the foals would have nCr from that parent. 
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:iconpokadotponies:
PokaDotPonies Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
XD I don't really understand Genos and I probably never will get them as well as everyone else does, but this really helps and I think I can refer to this for a guide now! :D
Thanks! :D
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Most welcome!! Glad to help!!
Reply
:iconpokadotponies:
PokaDotPonies Featured By Owner Nov 23, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Also, what would be the Geno's for Overo, Tobaino & Splash?

And would you mind checking my Geno's for my latest adoption (not uploaded yet) when I put it into st.ash?
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Nov 23, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Sure can!

 The genes for Overo is nO or OO however OO is called lethal white syndrome and the foal will be stillborn 

Tobiano is nT or TT though it has also been seen as nTb or TbTb

Splash is nSpl or SplSpl
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(1 Reply)
:iconprongy:
Prongy Featured By Owner Nov 7, 2013
No idea if you'll still change incorrect info. Paint is a breed and pinto is the group of white patterns. Duns always have leg barring, maybe really really faint on some to the point of being ridiculously hard to see, but it's there.

"Seal" isn't an addition to bay. It's a mutation of the bay (agouti) gene and is its own color. It doesn't only cause "seal brown", but also variations of brown (seal being the darkest shade) including what is called 'mock-bay' which can range from looking completely true bay with no mealing to changing colors and shades and intensity of mealing day-by-day. It is visible in homozygous (AtAt) OR heterozygous (Ata) forms.

My own horse is a mock-bay. Tested and true Ata (no generic bay 'A' gene, just brown 'At' and lack of agouti 'a'). He's my weirdo chameleon XD
Reply
:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Nov 7, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thank you for your input! As you can see I have not labeled the sheet as “paint genes” but rather, “paint patterns” as to describe the type of white found on paint horses.  I also classify “to the point of being ridiculously hard to see” as phenotypically absent or “sometimes.” As my family is a breeder of dun horses, I can count plenty of times where no barring was to be found. I understand it was most likely there, but as a digital reference for an art website, I aimed for more options for the artist.

As for seal, I had added it upon request, as many deviants have the most trouble with At of the agouti variants, and also you can see that no where have I said that it is an addition, and have further explained the agouti gene in the artists comments. I have also said it is “mostly” seen as dark seal bay, not only. So your following information regarding the mutation is /missing/ information that whoever reads this is more than welcome to take into consideration upon reading the comments. 

I realize that if I was going to explain one, I should have explained  them all and had a row of At and A+ however that would also have required a Burnt buckskin, burnt perlino, sable champagne, sable cream champagne, wild bay, wild buckskin, wild perlino, wild amber champagne, wild amber cream champagne, and my goal for this sheet was to keep it as concise as possible. 
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:iconprongy:
Prongy Featured By Owner Nov 7, 2013
After over a decade of consistent and ongoing research on genetics...jesus my brain overflows a lot. It's a miracle I retain all of the information I have.
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:iconbritneyart08:
Britneyart08 Featured By Owner Sep 13, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
ohmylordie, i dont think i'll ever understand horse genetics :XD: so confusing :D not that your guide is bad, im just stupid like that :meow:
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:iconxxelanite:
xxElanite Featured By Owner Sep 11, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
the flaxen chestnut there is a liver flaxen chestnut :] a regular flaxen chestnut would be a normal reddish chestnut with creamy mane and tails.
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Sep 11, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Liver chestnut is not expressed as a gene and can be any  horse that is ee. While liver can be expressed through the sooty gene, liver chestnuts may be flaxen, as well as black chestnuts. :)
Reply
:icondiamondhoofbeats:
DiamondHoofbeats Featured By Owner Aug 18, 2013  Hobbyist
Cool! This is really helpful, but I still really dont get it
Reply
:iconninuturu:
Ninuturu Featured By Owner Aug 14, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I'm getting a  foal looking like this:

geno: ee aa nCr nD nCh nZ nP nTb nSb LpLp nSty (patn1patn2) 

sooty pangare gold cream champagne dun tobiano sabino semi leopard appaloosa 

OR

geno: ee aa nCr nD nP nSb nO LpLp nSty 

sooty pangare dunalino sabino overo snowflake appaloosa


but i have no idea how to draw that... and i can't seem to find a 'pangare' collor

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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Aug 20, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Well if you ever need help or want to trade nordanners for a easier color to recreate, let me know!
Reply
:iconlady-wild:
Lady-Wild Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Reply
:iconlady-wild:
Lady-Wild Featured By Owner Aug 1, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
What would Amber cream Tabiano be?

What would Palomino roan be too?(im not good at genes)
Reply
:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Aug 20, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Amber cream tobiano would look something like 

Ee Aa nCr nCh nTb

Palomino roan would be 

ee aa nCr nR
Reply
:iconlady-wild:
Lady-Wild Featured By Owner Aug 1, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
lady-wild.deviantart.com/art/M… what would mine be?Bad question
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:iconfreckled-brunette:
Freckled-Brunette Featured By Owner Jul 26, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
This is such a stupid question, sorry I'm really bad at genetics...
If I bred my dom White Stallion to a dom panda mare, what colour would the foal be?
Reply
:iconninuturu:
Ninuturu Featured By Owner Jun 21, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
What could the foal colour be when i do:
EE AA CrCr nW nRb nT [dominant white (on perlino rabicano tobiano) (blue eyes)] X EE aa nSpl [Black splash (Blue Eyes)]
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Jun 22, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Definite buckskin base no matter what. 
100% EE (Dom black)
100% Aa (agouti [bay]
100% nCr (cream)

So your foal will be buckskin with the following possible modifiers (50% chance on each)
nW -dominant white
nRb -rabicano
nT -tobiano
nSpl -splash

So your foal may carry one, two, all or none of those white patterns. 

Hope that helped!!
Reply
:iconninuturu:
Ninuturu Featured By Owner Jun 22, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Yes it did, Thanks :)
Reply
:iconx-xinsomniax-x:
x-XInsomniaX-x Featured By Owner Jun 14, 2013  Hobbyist Artist
I mostly see genetics as buckets of bleach, unless we're working with blacks. x3 Bay + Bleach = Buckskin. Chestnut + Bleach = Palomino, etc. It makes things much easier. :giggle:
Reply
:iconxcassidyrosex:
XCassidyRoseX Featured By Owner May 27, 2013  Student Digital Artist
This is so helpful, thank you so much for making it! <3
Just a quick clarifying question though, if you don't mind xD
What is the difference between a gene such as Cream like nCr versus Champagne with Ch. I guess I'm asking what the "n" before means hehe xD Thank you! <3
Reply
:iconhessanite:
Hessanite Featured By Owner May 6, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
This is so pretty!
Reply
:iconaarogyc:
Aarogyc Featured By Owner Apr 10, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
would you have any interest in helping with designing and assigning genotypes to horses of my breed? You're obviously a lot better at genes than me xD
Reply
:iconsnowleopard303:
snowleopard303 Featured By Owner Apr 7, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
What would you do for a brindle+appaloosa?
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:iconbrindletail:
BrindleTail Featured By Owner Apr 7, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Brindle is a genetic mutation, usually a form of chimerism when two embryos (twins) fuse together to make one horse, and the two different colors create the stripy brindle. So brindle isn’t a gene and can’t be passed down to foals. Appaloosa is the gene Lp so LpLp for homozygous and nLp for heterozygous. Generally the two forms of Lp cause different types of appaloosa. For example

nLp: Spotted blankets, varnish roans, and leopards

LpLp: Snowcaps, snowflakes, and fewspots.

I’m however, not exactly certain on the validity of that, so I didn’t want to put it in the sheet in case I’m wrong. Hope that helps though!
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